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Hazard Mitigation

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The expense of reconstruction following a disaster continues to escalate. But there are steps that local governments can take now to reduce those costs by identifying hazards before the storm strikes and taking steps to remove them.

Local governments should coordinate and integrate policies to manage exposure to hazards with policies to accomplish economic, social and environmental objectives.  Local governments should also develop partnerships with local private sector and community-based organizations to get them more engaged in the planning and development activities of their communities and leaders. Through partnerships, the local people can be more active in how they want their community to be.

star Creating a Multi-Hazard Mitigation Action Plan:
Identifies potential natural hazard threats to your community (such as areas likely to suffer flooding or erosion) through a risk analysis.

  • Determines likely impacts of those hazards.
  • Sets mitigation goals.
  • Determines, prioritizes, and implements strategies to lessen the impacts of these hazards on your community.

Funding for creating a Multi-Hazard Mitigation Action Plan may be available through various sources, such as the federal mitigation and disaster grants and the FEMA Flood Mitigation Assistance Program.

Check FEMA’s list to see if your community has an approved plan.

NOTE: If your community doesn’t have an approved multi-hazard mitigation plan, it will not be eligible for federal post-disaster mitigation grants.

What is a Mitigation Action Plan?
A Mitigation Action Plan is a strategic plan, which provides a comprehensive strategy for addressing mitigation priorities. An effective Mitigation Action Plan provides documentation of valuable local knowledge on the most efficient and effective ways to reduce losses from hazard events.
Are Mitigation Action Plans Required?
No. However, the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 requires states and local governments to have a FEMA approved Mitigation Plan to be eligible for certain types of disaster assistance grants.
What Federal Mitigation and Disaster Assistance Grants are available?
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides funding through annual and Presidential Declaration grants.


Grants administered by the Texas Division of Emergency Management (DEM) include:

  • The Pre-Disaster Mitigation (PDM) program;
  • The Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC); and
  • The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP)

Grants administered by the Texas Water Development Board include:

  • The Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA); and
  • The Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL)
What is the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP)?
The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) makes funding available to a state following a Presidential Disaster Declaration. HMGP is not a disaster relief or recovery program, it is a mitigation grant to fund cost-effective mitigation projects to prevent or reduce future losses and minimize the costs of future disaster response and recovery. Funding for the HMGP comes from FEMA setting aside a percentage of the federal disaster funds available to the impacted state for Public Assistance and Individual Assistance. In Texas, The Governor's Division of Emergency Management (DEM), under the Texas Department of Public safety, is the state agency which administers the HMGP.
What is the Pre-Disaster Mitigation Grant Program (PDM)?
The Pre-Disaster Mitigation Grant Program (PDM) is an annual grant, which provides funds to states, territories, Indian tribal governments, communities, and universities for hazard mitigation planning and the implementation of cost-effective hazard mitigation projects prior to a disaster event.

The Pre-Disaster Mitigation (PDM) Program is an annual cost-share program (75 percent federal, 25 percent local match). Local governments applying for PDM funds for local mitigation projects must first have a local or regional mitigation action plan approved by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.  They must also participate in the National Flood Insurance Program if they have been identified through the NFIP as having a Special Flood Hazard Area. The local share may be in the form of in-kind services as well as dollars, however, no other federal source of money may be used to fund the local share.

What Flood Mitigation Assistance is Available?
Created as part of the National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994, Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) is administered through the Texas Water Development Board. FMA provides annual cost-share (75 percent federal, 25 percent local match) funding to assist states and communities which have an approved flood mitigation plan to implement measures to reduce or eliminate the long-term risk of flood damage to buildings, manufactured homes, and other structures insurable under the National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994.  Two types of FMA grants are available to states and communities:
  • Planning Grants to prepare Flood Mitigation Plans; and
  • Project Grants to implement measures to reduce flood losses, such as elevation, acquisition, or relocation of NFIP-insured structures.
What is the Repetitive Flood Claims Program?
The Repetitive Flood Claims grant (RFC) provides funding to states and communities to reduce or eliminate the long-term risk of flood damage to structures insured under the National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994 that have had one or more claims for flood damages. FEMA may contribute up to 100 percent of the total amount approved under the RFC grant award to implement approved activities, if the applicant has demonstrated that the proposed activities can not be funded under Flood Mitigation Assistance due to lack of cost share or capacity to manage the activities.

What is the Severe Repetitive Loss Program?
The Severe Repetitive Loss Program provides funding to reduce or eliminate the long-term risk of flood damage to severe repetitive loss (SRL) structures insured under the National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994.